NIRx Publications

There have been many peer-reviewed publications over the past ~30 years using near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in neuroimaging.  This is a small sample of some recent publications using NIRx NIRScout or NIRSport systems, organized by application.

 

Alternative Medicine
Motor Execution
Auditory
Multi-modal
Brain Perfusion
Naturalistic Environments
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
Neuroeconomics
Clinical Neurology
Pain Research
Cognitive States
Speech and Language
Connectivity
Social Interaction
Developmental Changes
Stroke Rehabilitation
Event-Related Optical Signal
Technology Advances
Infant Monitoring
Visual Stimulation


Alternative Medicine 

Acupuncture, interactions of herbal medicines with conventional drugs, pain management, meditation, Yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and others are techniques whose serious inquiry is well supported by fNIRS. NIRx experts can help you plan experimental strategies best suited to explore such nontraditional but promising methods.

[1] Litscher, Gerhard, G. Bauernfeind, X. Gao, G. Mueller-Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R.C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-infrared spectroscopy—Miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,“ Medical Acupuncture 23(4), 263-270 (2011).

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Auditory 

As fNIRS measurements are characterized by silent operations, innumerous possibilities of studies intended to explore the cortical activation in the presence of controlled sounds can be achieved. In addition to a better understanding of the underlying auditory processes in the brain, this may enable critical improvements on current solutions for cochlear implants.

[1] Chen, Ling-Chia, P. Sandmann, J.D. Thorne, C.S. Herrmann and S. Debener, "Association of Concurrent fNIRS and EEG Signatures in Response to Auditory and Visual Stimuli," Brain topography: 1-16 (2015).

[2] Pollonini, Luca, C. Olds, H. Abaya, H. Bortfeld, Michael S. Beauchamp, and John S. Oghalai, "Auditory cortex activation to natural speech and simulated cochlear implant speech measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy," Hearing research 309: 84-93 (2014).

[3] Santosa, Hendrik, Melissa Jiyoun Hong, and Keum-Shik Hong, "Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study," Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 8 (2014).

[4] C. Bouchon, T. Nazzi , J. Gervain. “Hemispheric Asymmetries in Repetition Enhancement and Suppression Effects in the Newborn Brain.” PLoS One. 2015 Oct 20;10(10):e0140160. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140160. eCollection (2015).

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Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) 

Given its great performance in the presence of muscle movements and the possibility of setting up measurements on realistic environments, fNIRS presents itself as an optimal candidate to acquire cortical signals as reliable and representative inputs for a Brain-Computer Interface investigation.

[1] Lee, Min-Ho, Siamac Fazli, Jan Mehnert, and Seong-Whan Lee. "Subject-dependent classification for robust idle state detection using multi-modal neuroimaging and data-fusion techniques in BCI." Pattern Recognition 48, no. 8: 2725-2737 (2015).

[2] Tumanov, Kirill, R. Goebel, R Mockel, B Sorger, G. Weiss. "fNIRS-based BCI for Robot Control." Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, (2015).

[3] Khan, M. Jawad, Melissa Jiyoun Hong, and Keum-Shik Hong. "Decoding of four movement directions using hybrid NIRS-EEG brain-computer interface." Frontiers in human neuroscience 8 (2014).

[4] DiStasio, Marcello M. ,and J. T. Francis, “Use of frontal lobe hemodynamics as reinforcement signals to an adaptive controller”, PLoS ONE 8(7), e69541 (2013).

[5] Fazli, Siamac, J. Mehnert, J. Steinbrink, B. Blankertz. "Using NIRS as a predictor for EEG-based BCI performance." Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. IEEE, (2012).

[6] Hu, Xiao-Su, K.-S. Hong, and S.S. Ge, “fNIRS-based online deception decoding,” J. Neural Engineering 9, 026012 (2012).

[7] Fazli, Siamac, J. Mehnert, J. Steinbrink, G. Curio, A. Villringer, K.R. Müller, and B. Blankertz, “Enhanced performance by a hybrid NIRS-EEG brain computer interface,” NeuroImage59(1), 519-529, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.084 (2012).

[8] Waldert, Stephan, L. Tüshaus, C.P. Kaller, and C. Mehring, “fNIRS exhibits weak tuning to hand movement direction,” PLoS ONE 7(11): e49266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049266 (2012).

[9] Herff, Christian, F. Putze, D. Heger, C. Guan, T. Schultz, “Speaking mode recognition from functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012:1715-8 (2012).

[10] Gottemukkula, Vikas, R. Derakhshani, “Classification-guided Feature Selection for NIRS-based BCI,” Neural Engineering (NER), 2011 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on. IEEE, (2011).

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Brain Perfusion 

Brain perfusion assessment on clinical environment has been mostly performed by techniques that cannot accomplish constant monitoring of the brain. Because of its intrinsic capability of constant monitoring as well as the unique portability, fNIRS has clear potential to be applied for intensive care unit applications.

[1] Tessari, Mirko, Anna Maria Malagoni, Maria Elena Vannini, and Paolo Zamboni, "A novel device for non-invasive cerebral perfusion assessment," Veins and Lymphatics 4, no. 1 (2015).

[2] Stojanovic-Radic, Jelena, Glenn Wylie, Gerald Voelbel, Nancy Chiaravalloti, and John DeLuca, "Neuroimaging and cognition using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in multiple sclerosis," Brain imaging and behavior 9, no. 2: 302-311 (2014).

[3] Habermehl, Christina, C.H. Schmitz, and J. Steinbrink, “Contrast enhanced high-resolution diffuse optical tomography of the human brain using ICG,” Optics Express 19, 18636-18644 (2011).

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Clinical Neurology 

fNIRS capabilities of constant monitoring of oxygenation, perfusion and autoregulation results on a high potential for future application of the technique on diagnosis for cerebrovascular disease and severe brain injury. Other clinical neurology methodologies including epileptic disorders and central nervous system tumors may benefit from the technique on the preoperative function localization.

[1] Obrig, H, “NIRS in clinical neurology – a ‘promising’ tool?,” NeuroImage 85: 535-546 (2014).

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Cognitive States 

Cognitive functions and mental states can be widely explored with fNIRS since this is a portable technique that is not too sensitive to motion artifacts. Attention, working memory, decision making, among other applications may be studied in natural environments with a fast setup preparation.

[1] Stojanovic-Radic, Jelena, Glenn Wylie, Gerald Voelbel, Nancy Chiaravalloti, and John DeLuca. "Neuroimaging and cognition using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in multiple sclerosis," Brain imaging and behavior 9, no. 2: 302-311 (2014).

[2] Bogler, Carsten, J. Mehnert, J. Steinbrink, J. Haynes, "Decoding vigilance with NIRS," PLOS e101729 (2014).

[3] Khan, M., Melissa Jiyoun Hong, and Keum-Shik Hong, "Decoding of four movement directions using hybrid NIRS-EEG brain-computer interface," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8 (2014).

[4] Bahmueller, J., Dresler, T., Ehlis, A., Cress, U. and Nuerk, H., "NIRS in motion – unraveling the neurocognitive underpinnings of embodied numerical cognition,” Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5, 743, 1, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00743 (2014).

[5] DiStasio, Marcello M. ,and J. T. Francis, “Use of frontal lobe hemodynamics as reinforcement signals to an adaptive controller”, PLoS ONE 8(7), e69541 (2013).

[6] Hu, Xiao-Su, K.-S. Hong, and S.S. Ge, “fNIRS-based online deception decoding,” J. Neural Engineering 9, 026012 (2012).

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Connectivity 

fNIRS can bring connectivity studies to a new level of applications with the hyperscanning modality, which enables both online feedback as well as offline analysis regarding within- and between-subjects connectivity. In addition to that, fNIRS fast sampling rate for hemodynamic states allows for a quick update rate of connectivity feedback, representing a higher subject engagement to the task.

[1] Holper, L., Scholkmann, F., and Seifritz, E., "Time-frequency dynamics of the sum of intra- and extracerebral hemodynamic functional connectivity during resting-state and respiratory challenges assessed by multimodal functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroImage 120 481-492 (2015).

[2] Tak, S., A. M. Kempny, K. J. Friston, A. P. Leff, and W. D. Penny, "Dynamic causal modelling for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," NeuroImage 111: 338-349 (2015).

[3] Mehnert, Jan, A. Akhrif, S. Telkemeyer, S. Rossi, C.H. Schmitz, J. Steinbrink, I. Wartenburger, H. Obrig, and S. Neufang, “Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain,” Brain and Development 35(10), 894-904, doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2012.11.006 (2013).

[4] Barbour, Randall L., H.L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, C.H. Schmitz, D.S. Pfeil, A. Tyagi, R. Andronica, D.C. Lee, S.-L. S. Barbour, J.D. Nichols, and M.E. Pflieger, “A programmable laboratory testbed in support of evaluation of functional brain activation and connectivity,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 20, 170-183 (2012).

[5] Niu, Haijing, S. Khadk, F. Tian, Z.-J. Lin, C. Lu, C. Zhu, and H. Liu, “Resting-state functional connectivity assessed with two diffuse optical tomographic systems,” J. Biomedical Optics 16(4); 046006 (2011).

[6] Mehnert, Jan, C. H. Schmitz, H. E. Möller, H. Obrig, and K. Müller, “Simultaneous Optical Tomography (OT) and fMRI with and without Task Activation,” Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med. 18: 1098 (2010).

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Developmental Changes 

The portability of the technique, performance in presence of general movements and feasibility to explore cortical response to social interactions represent the greatest advantages of fNIRS towards studies on brain functional changes during development of infants and children.

[1] Mehnert, Jan, A. Akhrif, S. Telkemeyer, S. Rossi, C.H. Schmitz, J. Steinbrink, I. Wartenburger, H. Obrig, and S. Neufang, “Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain,” Brain and Development 35(10), 894-904 (2013).

[2] C. Bouchon, T. Nazzi , J. Gervain. “Hemispheric Asymmetries in Repetition Enhancement and Suppression Effects in the Newborn Brain.” PLoS One. 2015 Oct 20;10(10):e0140160. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140160. eCollection (2015).

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Event-Related Optical Signal 

fNIRS is potentially the only imaging method that may be capable to measure both hemodynamics and neuronal activity. The Event-Related Optical Signal, caused by changes in light scattering from activated neurons, is observable when employing high frequency sampling with fNIRS.

[1] Hu, Xiao-Su, K.-S. Hong, and S.S. Ge, “Recognition of stimulus-evoked neuronal optical response by identifying chaos levels of near-infrared spectroscopy time series,” Neuroscience Letters 504, 115-120 (2011).

[2] Medvedev, A., J. Kainerstorfer, S.V. Borisov, R.L. Barbour, and J. VanMeter, “Event-related fast optical signal in a rapid object recognition task: Improving detection by the independent component analysis,” Brain Research 1236, 145-158 (2008).

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Infant Monitoring 

Infant monitoring is based on continuous measurements of cortical activity within a population that may be characterized by its constant movement. fNIRS low sensitivity of motion artifacts and improved light penetration make this tool an ideal choice for studies intended to explore the many unknown features of infant brain development.

[1] Gervain, J., "Plasticity in early language acquisition: the effects of prenatal and early childhood experience," Current opinion in neurobiology 35: 13-20 (2015).

[2] C. Bouchon, T. Nazzi , J. Gervain. “Hemispheric Asymmetries in Repetition Enhancement and Suppression Effects in the Newborn Brain.” PLoS One. 2015 Oct 20;10(10):e0140160. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140160. eCollection (2015).

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Motor Execution 

Motor execution and fine movements depend on coordinated action of brain function with peripheral muscles. Portability, use in natural environments, and compatibility with bioelectric measures make fNIRS an optimal choice for any application related to motor execution.

[1] Helmich, I., Holle, H., Rein, R., Lausberg, H., "Brain oxygenation patterns during the execution of tool use demonstration, tool use pantomime, and body-part-as-object tool use,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, 96, 1-7 (2015).

[2] Khan, M. Jawad, Melissa Jiyoun Hong, and Keum-Shik Hong, "Decoding of four movement directions using hybrid NIRS-EEG brain-computer interface," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8 (2014).

[3] Helmich, R., N. Niermann, and H. Lausberg, “Hemispheric differences of motor execution: A near-infrared spectroscopy study, “Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 789, 59-64 (2013).

[4] Waldert, Stephan, L. Tüshaus, C.P. Kaller, and C. Mehring, “fNIRS exhibits weak tuning to hand movement direction,” PLoS ONE 7(11): e49266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049266 (2012).

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Multi-modal 

In order to render measurements more robust and with a great amount of information provided by different methods, many groups appreciate multi-modal applications with fNIRS. Typical modalities are EEG, Eye-Tracking and fMRI, while tDCS and TMS may also be applied to modulate brain activity.

[1] Zaidi, A., Munk, M., Schmidt, A., Risueno-Segovia, C., Bernard, R., Fetz, E., Logothetis, N., Birbaumer, N., and Sitaram, R., "Simultaneous epidural functional Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy and cortical electrophysiology as a tool for studying local neuro-vascular coupling in primates," NeuroImage (2015).

[2] Chen, L., Sandmann, P., Thorne, J., Herrmann, C.. Debener, S., "Association of Concurrent fNIRS and EEG Signatures in Response to Auditory and Visual Stimuli," Brain Topography: 1-16 (2015).

[3] Lee, M., Fazli, S., Mehnert, J., and Lee, S., "Subject-dependent classification for robust idle state detection using multi-modal neuroimaging and data-fusion techniques in BCI," Pattern Recognition 48, no. 8: 2725-2737 (2015).

[4] Kopton, I., and Kenning, P., "Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research," Frontiers in human neuroscience 8 (2014).

[5] Khan, M., Hong, M., and Hong, K., "Decoding of four movement directions using hybrid NIRS-EEG brain-computer interface," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, 244, 1 (2014).

[6] Nikulin, V., T. Fedele, J. Mehnert, A. Lipp, C. Noack, J. Steinbrink, G. Curio, "Monochromatic Ultra-Slow (~ 0.1 Hz) Oscillations in the human electroencephalogram and their relation to hemodynamics," NeuroImage 97: 71-80 (2014).

[7] Daehne, S., F. Biessmann, F. Meinecke, J. Mehnert, S. Fazli, K. Muller, "Integration of multivariate data streams with bandpower signals," Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on 15.5: 1001-1013 (2013).

[8] Fazli, S., J. Mehnert, J. Steinbrink, B. Blankertz, "Using NIRS as a predictor for EEG-based BCI performance," Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. IEEE, (2012).

[9] Barbour, Randall L., H.L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, C.H. Schmitz, D.S. Pfeil, A. Tyagi, R. Andronica, D.C. Lee, S.-L. S. Barbour, J.D. Nichols, and M.E. Pflieger, “A programmable laboratory testbed in support of evaluation of functional brain activation and connectivity,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 20, 170-183 (2012).

[10] Fazli, S., J. Mehnert, J. Steinbrink, G. Curio, A. Villringer, K.R. Müller, and B. Blankertz, “Enhanced performance by a hybrid NIRS-EEG brain computer interface,” NeuroImage59(1), 519-529, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.084 (2012).

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Naturalistic Environment 

With the advent of portable and wearable solutions, in addition to the intrinsic performance in the presence of movements, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy is currently the ideal solution for any studies that intend to evaluate the cortical activation within environments most similar to the reality.

[1] Helmich, I., Holle, H., Rein, R., Lausberg, H., "Brain oxygenation patterns during the execution of tool use demonstration, tool use pantomime, and body-part-as-object tool use,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, 96, 1-7 (2015).

[2] Piper, S.., A. Krueger, S. Koch, J. Mehnert, C. Habermehl, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, and C.H. Schmitz, “A wearable multi-channel fNIRS system for brain imaging in freely moving subjects,” NeuroImage, 85 64-71 (2014).

[3] Bahmueller, J., Dresler, T., Ehlis, A., Cress, U. and Nuerk, H., "NIRS in motion – unraveling the neurocognitive underpinnings of embodied numerical cognition,” Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5, 743, 1, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00743 (2014).

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Neuroeconomics 

One of the pillars of neuroeconomics research is based on decision making, which may be evaluated from prefrontal lobe activity given a task. Although this has been explored with fMRI in the past, the restricted environment does impose a limit to the number of applications that can be explored. fNIRS may represent a notorious improvement to the field while enabling outdoor measurements that can be combined with simultaneous Eye-Tracking measurements.

[1] Kopton, I., and Kenning, P., "Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, 549, 1 (2014).

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Pain Research 

Having precise pain indicators obtained from brain activity can be particularly interesting to evaluate the efficiency of pain treatments, as well as to retrieve pain levels from people that may not be able to verbally communicate it. fNIRS, in particular, is a promising tool for this area giving its portability.

[1] He, J., F. Tian, H. Liu, Y. Peng, “Cerebrovascular responses of the rat brain to noxious stimuli as examined by functional near-infrared whole brain imaging,” J. Neurophysiology 107, 2853-2865 (2012).

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Social Interaction 

fNIRS ability of measuring two or more subjects at the same time enables researchers to study the effects of social interaction in the cortical activity. Possible applications on this area can be empathy, competitive and cooperative tasks, mother-child interactions, truth telling, among others. Also, this field may be explored by measuring activity from an individual interacting with animals, for example.

[1] Vanutelli, M., and Balconi, M., "Perceiving emotions in human–human and human–animal interactions: Hemodynamic prefrontal activity (fNIRS) and empathic concern," Neuroscience letters 605: 1-6 (2015).

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Speech and Language 

Realistic experiments involving verbalized speech should naturally account for the muscles required for this process and the eventual artifacts that these may cause. fNIRS robustness in the presence of muscle movements as well as its portability in comparison to other imaging techniques, render this technology a very promising tool for studying speech and language on a great variety of conditions.

[1] Gervain, J. "Plasticity in early language acquisition: the effects of prenatal and early childhood experience." Current opinion in neurobiology 35: 13-20 (2015).

[2] Herff, C., F. Putze, D. Heger, C. Guan, T. Schultz, “Speaking mode recognition from functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012:1715-8 (2012)

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Stroke Rehabilitation 

In addition to the advantages towards brain perfusion monitoring, stroke rehabilitation may benefit from fNIRS because of its portability and ease of application. These features allow for assessment during whole-body movements as well as neurofeedback methods indicators of the brain function, which may be of particular interest for training at home.

[1] Lin, Zi-Jing, M. Ren, L .Li, Y. Liu, J. Su, S.H. Yang, and H. Liu, “Interleaved imaging of cerebral hemodynamics and blood flow index to monitor ischemic stroke and treatment in rat by volumetric diffuse optical tomography,” NeuroImage 85(0 1): 566-582 (2014).

[2] Mehnert, Jan, M. Brunetti, J. Steinbrink, M. Niedeggen, and C. Dohle, “Effect of a mirror-like illusion on activation in the precuneus assessed with functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomedical Optics 18(6), 066001. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.6.066001 (2013).

[3] Habermehl, C., C.H. Schmitz, and J. Steinbrink, “Contrast enhanced high-resolution diffuse optical tomography of the human brain using ICG,” Optics Express 19, 18636-18644 (2011).

[4] Obrig, H., J. Steinbrink, “Non-invasive optical imaging of stroke,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011 369, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0252 (2011).

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Technology Advances 

The most often limitation of any research study is related to the limits offered by the technologies available. The efforts towards the design of new hardware and software solutions to overcome current limits are therefore much appreciated as they constantly push the technology state of the art and create a wide range of new possibilities to be explored by the whole research community.

[1] Lee, Daniel C., T. Gevorgyan, H. L. Graber, D. S. Pfeil, Y. Xu, S. Mangla, F. C. Barone, J. Libien, J. Charchaflieh, J. G. Kral, S. A. Ramirez, L. Simpson, R. L. Barbour, “Feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopic tomography for intraoperative functional cerebral monitoring: A primate study,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 3204-3210 December (2014).

[2] M. Aqil, K.-S. Hong, M.-Y. Jeong, and S.S. Ge, “Detection of event-related hemodynamic response to neuroactivation by dynamic modeling of brain activity,” NeuroImage 63, 553-568 (2012).

[3] Habermehl, Christina, S. Holtze, J. Steinbrink, S.P. Koch, H. Obrig, J. Mehnert, and C.H. Schmitz, “Somatosensory activation of two fingers can be discriminated with ultrahigh-density diffuse optical tomography,” NeuroImage 59, 3201-3211 (2012).

[4] Kavuri, Venkaiah C., Z.-J. Lin, F. Tian, and H. Liu, “Sparsity enhanced spatial resolution and depth localization in diffuse optical tomography,” Biomedical Optics Express 3(5), 943-957 (2012).

[5] Hu, Xiao-Su, K.-S. Hong, S.S. Ge, and Myung-Yung Jeong, “Kalman estimator- and general linear model-based on-line brain activation mapping by near-infrared spectroscopy,” BioMedical Engineering OnLine 9, 82-96 (2010).

[6] Bluestone, Avraham Y., G. Abdoulaev, C.H. Schmitz, R.L. Barbour, and A.H. Hielscher, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head," Optics Express, Vol. 9, pp. 272-286 (2001).

[7] Barbour, Randall L., S.S. Barbour, P.C. Koo, H.L. Graber, R. Aronson, and J. Chang, "MRI-guided optical tomography: Prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Computational Science & Engineering, Vol. 2, no 4, pp. 63-77 (1995).

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Visual Stimulation 

The intrinsic portability of the technology allied with the performance in the presence of movements makes fNIRS a promising tool to explore particular visual stimulation studies, for example concerning age-related hemodynamic changes, alcohol ingestion and, especially, brain monitoring during sleep.

[1] Chen, Ling-Chia, P. Sandmann, J.D. Thorne, C.S. Herrmann, S. Debener, "Association of Concurrent fNIRS and EEG Signatures in Response to Auditory and Visual Stimuli," Brain topography: 1-16 (2015).

[2] Zaidi, Ali Danish, Matthias HJ Munk, Andreas Schmidt, Cristina Risueno-Segovia, Rebekka Bernard, Eberhard Fetz, Nikos Logothetis, Niels Birbaumer, and Ranganatha Sitaram, "Simultaneous epidural functional Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy and cortical electrophysiology as a tool for studying local neuro-vascular coupling in primates," NeuroImage (2015).

[3] G.W. Wylie, H.L. Graber, G.T. Voelbel, A.D. Kohl, J. DeLuca, Y. Pei, Y. Xu, and R.L. Barbour, “Using co-variations in the Hb signal to detect visual activation: A near infrared spectroscopic imaging study,” NeuroImage 47, 473-481 (2009).

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Download fNIRS Publications by Application


 

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    NIRScout fNIRS

    NIRScout is an ultra-compact fNIRS neuroimaging solution that offers the versatility and scalability to fit a broad range of research applications. For example, investigating motor sensory functions, traumatic brain injury, learning/attention disorders and brain computer interfaces.

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    NIRSport Mobile fNIRS in a Backpack

    NIRSport is the first freely configurable, wearable, multichannel NIRS imaging system to be used on any part of the head. This pocket-book sized device combines LED illumination and innovative active detection technology into a truly wearable brain imaging solution.

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